In our increasingly connected digital world, data communication is the lifeblood that connects us. Understanding how different methods of data transmission function is key to designing efficient and reliable networks. Different methods determine how data is transferred.

To efficiently transmit data, hardware in a data communication circuit can use a variety techniques, including multiplexing as well as demultiplexing, which are processes that combine and separate signals into single composite ones for transmission, and then back into the individual components. This maximizes the utilization of bandwidth and decreases the cost. Error detecting code and signal amplifiers can also limit data corruption due to electric disturbances, or even momentary electrical noises that may change bits of information when they travel through an electronic communication channel.

Data communications also contain a set (protocol) of rules which are followed by the computers of the sender as well as the receiver. These rules ensure that the message will be understood and accepted correctly.

The sender is the device or computer that creates and sends out the message, which may be in the form of numbers, text, pictures, sound or video. The device or computer which receives a message could be the same or different from the sender. The transmission medium is a physical path that connects the sender and the receiver. It can be wired such as wires that are twisted or fiber optic cable, or wireless such as radio waves or lasers.

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